Learning would be exceedingly laborious, not to mention hazardous, if people had to rely solely on the effects of their own actions to inform them what to do.
Some of the most important determinants of life paths arise through the most trivial of circumstances.
The content of most textbooks is perishable, but the tools of self-directedness serve one well over time.
The higher the level of people's perceived self-efficacy, the wider the range of career options they seriously consider, the greater their interest in them, and the better they prepare themselves educationally for the occupational pursuits they choose.
In order to succeed, people need a sense of self-efficacy, to struggle together with resilience to meet the inevitable obstacles and inequities of life.
Fortunately, most human behavior is learned observationally through modeling from others.