Vladimir Vladimirovich Nabokov (10 April 1899 – 2 July 1977), also known by the pen name Vladimir Sirin, was a Russian-American novelist, poet, translator, and entomologist. His first nine novels were written in Russian (1926–38), but he achieved global fame after he began writing English prose. Nabokov became an American citizen in 1945. Nabokov's novel Lolita (1955) is considered his magnum opus, and was ranked fourth in the list of the Modern Library 100 Best Novels in 2007. Lolita has attained classic status and has been adapted into film, stage, and opera several times, with many authors considering it the greatest work of the 20th century. Other popular works include Pale Fire (1962) which was ranked 53rd on Modern Library 100 Best Novels; and his memoir, Speak, Memory (1951) which was listed eighth on publisher Random House's list of the 20th century's greatest nonfiction. He was a finalist for the National Book Award for Fiction seven times. Apart from writing his many other interests included collecting butterflies and chess.